بررسی غلظت سرب و کروم در برگ گیاهان جعفری و شاهی در خاک آبیاری شده با آب آلوده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد علوم خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری.

2 دانشیار گروم علوم خاک،دانشکده علوم زراعی،دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری.

3 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منایع طبیعی ساری.

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر مقادیر مختلف سرب و کروم موجود در آب آبیاری بر تجمع آنها در خاک و جذب گیاهی (در شاهی و جعفری)، آزمایشی در گلدان هایی با ارتفاع 22 و قطر 28 سانتی­متر، به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب کاملا تصادفی، در 3 تکرار و 16 تیمار و بافت خاک لومی در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری در سال 1390 اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل چهار سطح سرب در آب (0، 500، 1000، 1500 میلی­گرم در لیتر از منبع نیترات سرب) و چهار سطح کروم در آب (0، 100، 200، 400 میلی­گرم در لیتر از منبع نیترات کروم) به صورت مجزا از هر تیمار و تلفیقی از هر دو تیمار در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج همبستگی نشان داد کاربرد مقادیر مختلف سرب و کروم بر میزان سرب و کروم کل و قابل جذب خاک تاثیر معنی­دار داشت. افزایش مقدار سرب باعث کاهش مقدار کروم در لایه سطحی و افزایش میزان سرب کل و سرب قابل جذب خاک تحت کشت شاهی و جعفری شد و همچنین با افزایش مقدار کروم در آب آبیاری و کاهش مقدار سرب در تیمارهای تلفیقی، مقدار کروم کل و قابل جذب افزایش یافت. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش غلظت سرب در آب تا حد 1000 میلی­گرم در لیتر و بالا رفتن سطح آلودگی خاک ، مقدار سرب در بخش هوایی در مقایسه با شاهد افزایش یافت. در سطوح بالاتر آلودگی مقدار سرب و کروم مقدار آنها در بخش هوایی کاهش یافت. این نتیجه در مورد مقدار سرب به احتمال زیاد به این دلیل است که با افزایش مقدار سرب در بخش زیرزمینی، این عنصر به صورت ترکیبات نامحلول در ریشه رسوب کرده و به بخش هوایی منتقل نشده است. اما در مورد کروم، به دلیل باقی ماندن آن در جایگاه­های تبادلی کاتیونی و تمایل به هیدرولیز و جذب سطحی شدن، غیر متحرک می­گردد. پیوند کروم به گروه­های هیدروکسی در دیواره سلول­های ریشه، از جابجایی این فرم یونی بهاندام­های هوایی ممانعت می­کند. بیشترین سرب تجمع یافته در اندام هوایی سبزیجات نیز در تیمار 1000 میلی­گرم در لیتر سرب و بیشترین کروم تجمع یافته در اندام هوایی سبزیجات نیز در تیمار 400 میلی گرم در لیتر کروم اتفاق افتاد. بدیهی است که خطرات بهداشتی قابل توجهی در استفاده از آبهای آلوده برای آبیاری مزارع سبزی و باغ‌های میوه وجود دارد و محصولات به‌دست آمده از این مزارع معضلی را ایجاد کرده که به گفته متخصصان حوزه سلامت فاجعه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Concentration of Lead and Chromium in Leaves of Cress and Parsley in Soils Irrigated with Contaminated Water

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyedeh aida nojabaee 1
  • Mehdi Ghajar Sepanlou 2
  • mohammad ali bahmanyar 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University.
2 Associate Prof., Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University.
3 Professor, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University.
چکیده [English]

 
In order to investigate the effect of different amounts of lead and chromium accumulation in soils and vegetables (cress and parsley), an experiment was conducted in pots in the research greenhouse of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, in 2011. The pots had a height of 22 cm and diameter of 28 cm, filled with loamy soil.  The experiment had factorial arrangements based on randomized complete block design with three replications and sixteen treatments. Treatments consisted of four levels of lead in irrigation water (0, 500, 1000, 1500 mg l-1 of lead nitrate source (and four levels of chromium (0, 100, 200, 400 mg l-1 of chromium nitrate source), while treatments were studied as separate and combined. The correlation result showed that the application of different amounts of lead and chromium in water had significant effect on total and available concentration of lead and chromium in the soil. Increasing the amount of lead in irrigation water decreased the amount of chromium in surface soil and increased the amount of total and available lead in cress and parsley soil. Also, with increase in the amount of chromium in irrigation water and decrease in the amount of lead in combined treatments, the amount of total and available chromium increased. The result showed that with increasing the soil contamination by using a solution having 1000 mg l-1 Pb, lead concentration increased in shoot compared to the control and, at higher levels of contamination, lead concentration decreased in root. The reason might be the explained by saying that with increase in roots lead content, most probably, it deposited in root as insoluble compounds and did not transmit to the shoot. However, in the case of chromium, it is immobile due to remaining in the cation exchange sites and its tendency for hydrolysis and absorption.  The chromium bond to hydroxyl groups on the roots cell walls prevents movement of this ionic form to shoots. The highest accumulated lead in vegetables shoot was in 1000 mg l-1 lead treatment and the highest accumulation of chromium in the studied vegetable shoots was in 400 mg l-1 chromium treatment. It is obvious that there are significant health risks in use of polluted water for irrigation of vegetable fields and fruit gardens. Contamination of these products has caused a dilemma that, according to health professionals, is a catastrophe.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Health risks
  • vegetables
  • Contaminated soils
  • Lead nitrate
  • Chromium nitrate
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